История

10 тревожных фактов о викторианской торговле мертвыми телами

В XIX веке анатомам и хирургам требовалось все большее количество трупов для продвижения своих исследований в области анатомии человека, в результате чего торговля мертвыми телами процветала. Отдельные люди стали заниматься похищением тел (раскапывать могилы, чтобы извлечь тело) и продавать их, чтобы получить аккуратную прибыль — эти люди стали известны как воскресители.

Британское правительство приняло Закон об анатомии 1832 года в попытке увеличить доступность трупов для медицинских школ и положить конец похищению тел и убийствам. Закон положил конец использованию препарирования в качестве наказания за убийство и разрешил использовать для препарирования невостребованные тела из государственных учреждений, таких как больницы и работные дома.

Однако этот закон не устранил нехватку тел, и низкое предложение все еще не удовлетворяло потребности, особенно в Лондоне. По мере того как Викторианская эпоха устремлялась вперед в своем стремлении к науке и инновациям, а потребность в трупах все возрастала и возрастала, торговля мертвыми телами стала сложной и опасной чертой повседневной жизни.

10Бедные стали мишенью

Фото кредит: Викимедиа

После принятия Закона об анатомии усилилось беспокойство по поводу того, что забираются тела богатых и представителей среднего класса, а также бедняков. Политики ответили на эти опасения, заверив избирателей, что будет принят закон, который узаконит использование мертвых бедняков для препарирования. Однако бедняки не слишком утешились принятием закона об анатомии, поскольку вместо того, чтобы быть препарированными вместе с убийцей, они будут препарированы вместо него.

Судьба бедняков значительно ухудшилась после принятия Нового закона о бедных 1834 года — законодательного акта, созданного для установления контроля над бедняками, в частности над их телами. Закон гласил, что ни один трудоспособный человек не должен был получать деньги или помощь от властей по закону о бедных, кроме как в рабочем доме. К сожалению, как уже говорилось в этом списке, многие служащие работного дома были заинтересованы в получении дополнительного дохода от продажи тел.

Если человек был беден, его заключали в тюрьму, морили голодом, а после смерти забивали. Бедняки в работных домах также восставали, особенно когда было ясно, что тело забирают для препарирования незаконно.

9Созданы цепочки поставок

Фото кредит: Викимедиа

Торговля трупами становилась все более сложной по мере того, как продолжалась викторианская эпоха, и для облегчения продажи тел и частей тела были созданы «цепочки поставок», чтобы обеспечить бесперебойность процесса для получения максимальной прибыли. Цепочка поставок означала, что все больше людей вовлекались в процесс от начала и до конца, некоторые ради финансовой выгоды, а некоторые в стремлении получить анатомическое образование.

Тела нужно было быстро приобретать, быстро продавать и еще быстрее утилизировать. Для этого были созданы цепочки поставок, в которых участвовало множество разных людей со всей страны. Больницы, такие как больница Святого Барта, устанавливали отношения с теми, кто имел прямой доступ к трупам, например, с коронерами, приходскими чиновниками и служащими работных домов.

Например, слушания у коронера могут быть дорогостоящими, и эти расходы могут быть возмещены за счет продажи тел после официального дознания. Кроме того, тела, найденные на улицах, не всегда вскрывались для определения причины смерти, особенно в случаях утопления и пьянства. Это позволяло продавать относительно свежие и нетронутые трупы анатомам с целью получения финансовой выгоды.

8Святой Варфоломей был ключевым клиентом

Фото кредит: Викимедиа

Больница Святого Варфоломея, основанная в 1123 году, была ключевым клиентом в торговле трупами, испытывавшим острую потребность в трупах для препарирования в специально построенном зале для препарирования.

У больницы Святого Барта были необычные способы получения трупов, и она довольно гибко относилась к закону. Из-за своего расположения на улицах за пределами больницы Святого Барта многие бедняки умирали в нищете, и больница, несомненно, извлекала из этого выгоду. Носильщики оставляли большие плетеные корзины на улице под воротами короля Генриха VIII, чтобы проходящие мимо торговцы телами могли наполнить их. Кроме того, ежегодная ярмарка Святого Варфоломея, проводившаяся за пределами больницы, также оказалась плодотворной для анатомов: смерти происходили от истощения, плохого самочувствия или перевозбуждения.

С течением времени простые отношения между больницей и торговцами телами постепенно превратились в более «сложную» систему приобретения тел для удовлетворения спроса.

7Дело Роберта Хогга и Альберта Фейста

Рабочий дом был одним из самых важных источников трупов; все медицинские школы получали не менее теплый прием, когда посещали рабочие дома в сумерках.

В 1858 году разразился скандал, показавший, до каких масштабов дошла торговля трупами. Хозяин работного дома Святой Марии Ньюингтон Альфред Фейст был обвинен в незаконной продаже тел нищих в медицинскую школу госпиталя Гис в Лондоне. Приходской клерк Джозеф Берджесс обнаружил, что гробовщик Роберт Хогг отвез в общей сложности 45 тел в больницу Guys вместо того, чтобы похоронить их. Тело матери одной Луизы Миксер, Мэри Уайтхед, было снято Хоггом и доставлено в госпиталь Гис.

Хогг признался, что проводил фальшивые похороны в рабочем доме, заявив, что получал двойную плату за каждые похороны: одну от больницы Guys, а другую от прихода. Хогг привозил любые тела, какие только мог, включая расчлененные тела из больницы Guys. Фейст и Хогг меняли тело заявленного родственника на тело расчлененного незнакомца; свежее тело затем отвозили в больницу в сумерках.

6Части тела также продавались

Хотя торговля человеческими телами в основном заключалась именно в этом, как стало ясно из этого списка, тела было очень трудно достать, и иногда отчаянные времена требовали отчаянных мер. Торговля человеческими телами также включала части тела, и часто те, кому нужны были тела, покупали части тела.

Еще хуже, чем использование случайных частей тела, был тот факт, что некоторые части тела были предоставлены живыми людьми, скорее всего, за деньги. Это включало ампутированные конечности и наросты, которые стали известны как «горшки». Даже если это были не целые тела, они все равно играли важную роль в исследованиях и часто сохранялись для дополнительного изучения в будущем. Некоторые коллекционеры даже имели свою собственную нишу и создавали специальные коллекции горшков, которые имели особое отношение к их работе.

5Плоды и дети высоко ценились

Сочетание исторических исследований и археологической оценки образцов в Кембриджском университете показало, что трупы плодов и младенцев высоко ценились для изучения анатомии.

Исследователи изучили коллекцию скелетов 1700-1800-х годов, собранную в препаровальной комнате анатомического отделения Кембриджа. Они обнаружили, что анатомы, как правило, хранили черепа плодов и детей целыми, а не вскрывали их. Из 54 образцов в коллекции только один был подвергнут краниотомии.

Продажа тела плода или ребенка могла принести немалые деньги нуждающимся и отчаявшимся женщинам. Кроме того, эти трупы были особенно популярны, поскольку анатомы стремились проводить дальнейшие исследования выкидышей и аномалий при родах.

Для демонстрации анатомии нервной и кровеносной систем требовалось целое тело (для этого лучше подходило тело меньшего размера), в которое вводили цветной воск. В апреле 1834 года, в День апрельского дурака, в реке было найдено тело неизвестного ребенка, которое было расчленено: остались только нога, бедро, часть позвоночника и рука. Местный хирург по имени доктор Вебб сообщил, что, скорее всего, тело использовалось для изучения анатомии, «так как артерии были заполнены воском».

4Оксфорду пришлось соревноваться с Кембриджем

Фото кредит: Wellcome Collection

В двух старейших университетах Англии были анатомические школы, которым требовались тела для препарирования, настолько, что они соревновались друг с другом, кто первым приобретет тела и таким образом продвинет свои исследования.

Александр Макалистер был назначен профессором анатомии в Кембриджском университете в 1883 году и возглавил анатомическую лабораторию (на фото выше, 1888 год). Макалистер и его кафедра создали «бизнес анатомии», который скопировали несколько региональных медицинских школ. Артур Томсон был принят на должность преподавателя анатомии человека в Оксфорде в 1885 году и быстро приступил к увеличению количества трупов, имеющихся в распоряжении университета.

Томсону было трудно закрепиться на местном рынке, и, пытаясь улучшить ситуацию и догнать Макалистера, он решил отправиться дальше. Его записи о мелочах показывают, что он много путешествовал и платил около 12 фунтов за каждое тело. Томсон заключил соглашения о покупке в двух местах Западного Мидленда, и с 1886 по 1887 год он приобрел семь тел у опекунов Западного Мидленда. В дальнейшем он расширил свою торговлю, и в период с 1895 по 1929 год было приобретено 404 тела у союзов и приютов для бедных в четырех местах: Лестере, Рединге, Стаффордшире и в городской черте Оксфорда.

3Железные дороги имели решающее значение

Как показали усилия Макалистера и Томсона по увеличению количества приобретаемых трупов, доступ к трупам из нескольких мест был необходим, если не жизненно важен. Поэтому ключевой частью торговли трупами было использование железной дороги, особенно для получения трупов из дальних регионов для поставки в такие места, как Кембридж и Оксфорд.

Три раза в неделю со станции Ливерпуль-стрит в Лондоне отправлялся скоростной поезд, следовавший через Кембридж и Донкастер. Этот поезд стал известен как «мертвый поезд», так как он перевозил трупы в Кембридж. К задним вагонам поезда были прицеплены «похоронные вагоны», в которых находились сложенные штабелями ящики с трупами. Ящики были тщательно запечатаны, чтобы предотвратить просачивание неприятных запахов от тел, чтобы не насторожить пассажиров.

Томсону в Оксфорде нужен был эффективный способ сбора и перемещения тел, и железная дорога стала решающим фактором, как и для Макалистера. И в Лестере, и в Рединге были главные железнодорожные станции сети Great Western Railway, и чем быстрее маршрут, тем лучше. Для доставки тел на железнодорожную станцию был нанят гробовщик, и каждое тело было помещено в ящик, адресованный сотруднику кафедры анатомии университета.

2Семьи прятали трупы

Закон об анатомии позволял завладевать телами бедняков и использовать их для препарирования, и ужасные истории, связанные с использованием этих тел, были небезызвестны беднякам. Например, если кто-то умирал в тюрьме или рабочем доме, у родственника было семь дней, чтобы заявить о своем желании получить тело и доказать, что он может позволить себе достойное погребение.

Некоторые хотели избежать препарирования своих близких настолько сильно, что прятали тело, часто для того, чтобы оттянуть время и собрать средства на похороны. В Шордиче, Восточный Лондон, Мэри Энн Хакл хранила тело своего умершего мужа, Томаса Хакла, в своем доме в течение четырех дней и четырех ночей. Газета Bury and Norwich Post сообщила, что, скорее всего, это было сделано для того, чтобы выиграть время и избежать доставки тела в анатомическую школу Святого Варфоломея или Кембридж.

На несколько более легкой ноте, чтобы помочь семьям позволить себе похоронные услуги, были созданы «похоронные клубы», члены которых вносили еженедельные платежи, чтобы клуб мог покрыть расходы, независимо от того, как долго человек был его членом. Что-то вроде викторианского ответа на краудсорсинг или проведение «похоронной» автомойки.

1Заговор против холеры

Во время вспышки холеры в 1831-1832 годах жертвы были изолированы в специальных больницах. После смерти их тела хоронили как можно быстрее после краткого вскрытия, несмотря на пожелания семьи и друзей.

В сочетании с принятием Закона, действия медицинских властей вызвали большое беспокойство среди населения, которое начало подозревать, что холерная эпидемия была лишь способом для врачей провести эксперименты и вскрыть больше трупов. К сожалению, эти опасения были не совсем необоснованными.

В сентябре 1832 года в холерной больнице на Суон-стрит в Манчестере умер трехлетний мальчик. На похоронах мальчика дедушка попросил показать ему тело, но ему было отказано, поэтому он сам открыл гроб. Он обнаружил, что голова мальчика отсутствует, а на ее месте лежит кирпич. Эта история вызвала возмущение, и толпа из нескольких тысяч человек направилась к больнице, где они разбили окна и разгромили оборудование.

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  69. Hello! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing a blog article or vice-versa? My site covers a lot of the same subjects as yours and I feel we could greatly benefit from each other. If you happen to be interested feel free to send me an email. I look forward to hearing from you! Awesome blog by the way!

  70. I do believe all the concepts you have presented for your post. They are very convincing and will definitely work. Nonetheless, the posts are very brief for newbies. May just you please lengthen them a little from subsequent time? Thank you for the post.

  71. When I initially commented I clicked the «Notify me when new comments are added» checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get three e-mails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove me from that service? Thank you!

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